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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f2\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f3\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f4\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f5\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f6\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f7\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f1\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2210\margr4356\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn4450\margrsxn4356\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols2\colno1\colw1044\colsr2200\colno2\colw720 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-1\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 RELIGION}\par \column \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb22\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 37}\par \sect\sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2210\margrsxn4356\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li14\fi0\ri0\sb209\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 Atmospheric gods, like Indra, Vayu, Maruts, Parjanya; \expndtw2 (3)  Heavenly gods, like Varuna, Dyaus, Asvins, Surya, Savitri, Mitra, Pushan, and Visnu\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f1\cchs0 \'97\hich\af0\dbch\af1\loch\f0\cchs0 the latter five forms \expndtw9 being all associated with the different phases  of the \expndtw6 sun's glory.   Among these  deities,  Varuna  occupies \expndtw5 the place of honour, and is extolled in many a sublime \expndtw9 hymn.   He is god of the sky, and with him is bound \expndtw5 up the conception of \i rita\sub t\nosupersub  \i0 first indicative of the cosmic \expndtw3 and then of moral order.    Next comes Indra, the god of \expndtw1 thunder-storm,   whose  majesty   is   another    favourite \expndtw8 subject of praise.   He causes the rain to fall and thus \expndtw2 relieves   the  dryness   of  the   earth.   His   importance \expndtw6 grew with the advance of the Aryans to regions noted \expndtw5 for storm and seasonal rainfall.   It must not, however, \expndtw3 be supposed that any kind of hierarchy among the gods \expndtw5 was in the course of formation;   The poets at different times ascribed pre-eminence to different gods, as they had to serve many masters and needs.    The \i l&igveda \i0 also mentions abstract deities, such as Sraddha (faith) \expndtw7 and Manyu (anger); and among goddesses lisas (god\-\expndtw6 dess of Dawn) inspires much noble poetry.\super 1\nosupersub    To pro\-\expndtw7 pitiate these gods, prayers and sacrifices or oblations \expndtw-1 of milk, \i ghee, \i0 grain, flesh, etc. were offered.   The utmost \expndtw4 stress was laid on the performance of the latter in order \expndtw3 that the worshippers may enjoy all happiness and pros\-\expndtw11 perity.   There is also a tendency in a few hymns of \expndtw3 the \i Rigveda \i0 to identify one god with others, or to group \expndtw0 them in pairs (e.g., \i dyavd-prithvi), \i0 and carrying it further \expndtw3 the composers arrive at the great monotheistic doctrine \expndtw9 that "the gods are one and the same, only sages des\-\expndtw0 cribe them differently."\super 2}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi353\ri0\sb252\sa0\sl-198\slmult0\tx464 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 1{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw1 The \i Rigueda \i0 also refers to some minor deities like the Ribhus\line \expndtw4 (aerial elfs) and Apsaras    (water-nymphs).   There is,   however,\line \expndtw10 no trace in it of Zoolatry and To'temism.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li353\fi0\ri0\sb14\sa0\tx464 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 2{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw5 cf.   ^ firr ^WTfMTf *?Tt \i fesq: % *gwt \i0 TOc\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f1\cchs0 \'bb\hich\af0\dbch\af1\loch\f0\cchs0 n^ I}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li403\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex69\expndtw13\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs28 ^ srfesrr srferr 3^rf% int *rRrfis\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f1\cchs0 \'ab\hich\af0\dbch\af1\loch\f0\cchs0 iM\super 1\nosupersub n\super i\nosupersub ig: u}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li3820\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 (Rigveda, \i0 I, 164, 46).}\par }